Research Groups

In the growing department of Civil engineering following Research Groups are establishing the research activities. Research groups are formed based on the expertise and working capacity of individual members. The prime objective of each group is to address the National and regional level issues related to Civil engineering. We have departmental and collaborative research groups.

  1. Departmental research groups
  1. Hydraulic & water resources Engineering Group (HWRE)
  2. Geotechnical Engineering Group (GE)
  3. Structural Engineering Group (SE)
  4. Transportation Engineering group (TE)
  1. Collaborative research groups
  • Hydraulic characteristic of Harapan civilization

  1. Hydraulic & water resources Engineering Group (HWRE)

Research Areas:

Efficient management of irrigation system of Punjab, Characterization of sediment transport in alluvial rivers, up gradation of computer aided design of hydraulic structures (CADHS), water recourses management.      

Research Projects under consideration:

1.      Sediment Flux passing responses of Indus barrages during extreme flooding

Sediment fluxes in rivers differ from the debris flow and contain non-cohesive and cohesive sediment moving along the streams (rivers and canals). During peak flooding stream power approaches its maximum value and produces large fluxed of sediment in forms of bars. Changes in weather conditions and environment processes are very complex and interrelated. Climatic changes stands responsible for the glacier melt, cause extreme flooding and accelerates the rock disintegration processes.

This project focuses on the origin to final effect by considering the climatic changes in term of precipitation (updating of DAD curves, IDF relationships, PMP etc), flooding (Updating FFA, RFFA, UH, IUH etc) and linking i-e with flow functions and sediment budget. The project is aimed at investigating 0e behavior and response of stream structures during the extreme events through sampling, modeling analysis. The expected results are the technical recommendations for the efficient hydraulic design structural modifications. By overcoming the expected sediment flux great losses inform of structure failures, human and animal lives and ocher directly or indirectly linked properties.

The Himalayas and the Indus Basin

2.      Observation system for irrigation water distribution

 Pakistan’s agriculture primarily depends upon irrigation and irrigated lands supply more than 90% of the total agricultural production, account. Water is a critical resource for sustainable economic development of Pakistan and in this perspective irrigated agriculture is of great importance in the socio-economic life of the country. It provides linkages and ripple effects though which growth in other sectors is stimulated. For the proper flow monitoring at the headwork & tail off take were developing a simple method of calculations. Specific software is reprogrammed with some alterations to measure the contour line & points (with the required data) of a UHD image and calculate the flow in channel by using this image .this project focuses on

  • To insure the proper systematic real time flow monitoring.
  • To maintain the discharge & demand ratio.
  • To control the corruption ratio in the flow monitoring system in irrigation department.
  • To control the stealing of water.
  • To increase the per capita availability of water for irrigation and domestic uses.
  • Taking advantage of the developments in the field of information technology, digitization of the daily gauges and discharge data of all the rivers, main canals, branch canals, feeders, distributaries, minors and sub minors canal water.

3.      Socio-Economic impact of flooding on irrigation and agricultural practices in Indus Basin

In the Indus Basin, monsoonal rains are the most important flood-causing factor, followed by the size, shape, and land-use of the catchments, and by the conveyance capacity of the corresponding streams.

In the catchment, apart from the loss of floodwater due to evaporation and seepage, the overflow from the streams ebbs as the flood wave recedes. In addition, the catchments lack surface storage capacity, so they cannot absorb the runoff, and, therefore, pass on sharp flow peaks and high sediment yields to the downstream channels. In the plains areas of the middle river reach, direct water flows from the catchments become insignificant; instead, it is the tributaries’ flows into the Indus River that dominate.. Not all changes are undesirable, but the development of agricultural irrigation facilities and other infrastructure has altered the river morphology and significantly reduced the floodplain area available for accommodating high floods.

Group Members:

  1. Dr. Syed Iftikhar Ahmad
  2. Engr. Waqar Ahsan
  3. Engr. Zeshan Ali

B.   Geotechnical Engineering Group (GE)

Research Areas:

Surface and subsurface investigation of hydraulic structures, Dan engineering, Experimental Soil Mechanics, Identification and stabilization techniques of problematic soils, Geotechnical site characterization, Deformation and strength characteristics of geo-materials, Geotechnical Earthquake, Correlational research in Geotechnical Engineering.

Research Projects under consideration:

1.      Effect of aging of grains on strength and deformation characteristics of granular soils in geotechnical failure in Pakistan

 Due to increase use of locally available soft rockfill materials in construction of embankments in hilly areas across the world, many communities have experienced drastic geotechnical failures. So the effect of deterioration of grains is needed to be understood on the strength and deformation characteristics of weather rockfill materials. With the increase in construction of embankments with cheap, locally available residual deposits of soft rock fill material in hilly areas, it has became important for Geotechnical engineers to understand the mechanical behavior of such non-conventional fill materials.


With the increase in construction of embankments with cheap, locally available residual deposits of soft rock fill material in hilly areas, it has became important for Geotechnical engineers to understand the mechanical behavior of such non-conventional fill materials. So the objectives of this project are:

  1. To compare the mechanical properties of standard & deteriorated/crushed granular soils under saturated and dry condition (at different initial grain size distribution, initial relative density and confining stress at the saturation)
  2. To propose correlations for direct assessment of possible loss of strength and increase in deformation characteristics with time
  3. To Validate the developed Correlations

Mirpur, AJK, Pakistan

Group Members:

  1. Dr. Syed Iftikhar Ahmad
  2. Engr. Usama Khalid
  3. Engr. Hiba Arshad

C.   Structural Engineering Group (SE)

Research Areas:

Rapid and low cost building construction with GFRG/ Rapid wall technology, manufacturing of low cast concrete, light weight structural elements.

Research Projects under consideration:

  1. Assessing the uniformity of concrete structure using Schmidt Hammer

It is a common practice to evaluate the compressive strength of concrete by casting cubes and cylinders. The concrete infrastructure requires regular assessment in order to ensure public safety and cost effective maintenance. Nondestructive testing (NDT) is a well-established technique to determine the integrity of materials and components of structure. Considerable work has been conducted to develop rapid, nondestructive tests(NDTs) that provide a reliable measure of concrete quality in a structures. The researches shows that rebound hammer test can provide information about the concrete quality, depending upon the calibration and type of concrete members as well. American Concrete Institute (ACI) codes states that rebound correlation curves must be developed before the application of NDT in the field. The main advantage of using rebound hammer is to obtain a large number of rebound values in very short duration of time in the field irrespective of the structure size. The normal and common procedure applied in the field is quite simple irrespective of the types of Rebound hammer as all have approximately the same nominal design.

NDT testing in field and measurements

For NDT testing the main masjid of CIIT Sahiwal campus is targeted. The concrete frame structure of Masjid is constructed during the last two (02) years and being completed by constructing different new structural members. Following structural components, mostly on the ground floor were selected.

  1. Continuous Beams and columns
  2. Waist slab of stair case
  3. Overhead water tank

Test points on different structural components are selected as shown in figure (1) by keeping in view the codes requirements.

In this study, 16 columns, 4 beams, waist slab of stair case and overhead water tank (OWHT) are chosen for compressive strength evaluation. Columns and beams lengths was divided in three test segments. The measured compressive strength (fc) of different structural members differs significantly from the standard strength desired and also from each other for continuous beams and columns by 8%. The theoretically homogeneous concrete frame structure becomes nonhomogeneous and may act differently than the designed behavior. In this case study the various reasons of non-homogeneity are discussed as non- uniformity in batching the materials, in sufficient compaction, poor workmanship and concrete pouring in segments.

Group Members:

  1. Dr. Syed Iftikhar Ahmad
  2. Engr. Zeshan Ali
  3. Engr. Hiba Arshad
  1. Strength Comparison and Evaluation of Portland Cement Concrete with the Glass Fibers Reinforced Concrete

Concrete is most widely used construction material in the world, about 12 bt. of concrete is being made by the concrete industry annually, for this amount of concrete about 1.6 billion tonnes of Portland cement (PC) is being used, such a way 0.8 tonnes of Carbon di oxide is launched into the atmosphere for the manufacture of 1 tonne of cement, which charges about 5–8% of worldwide CO2 emission. It is observed that due to brittle behavior and low tensile strength, concrete can crack when loaded because it has lower strength immediately after casting as well as its plasticity, stiffness and strength are negligible. During setting, concrete stiffness increases and failure strain decreases, after setting, tensile strength increases and failure strain also increases, marking a minimum value for failure strain. At this moment, cracking risk is at maximum. It is stated that fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) has many applications e.g. tunnel construction, wall cladding, structural ceilings, where fibers are being used as reinforcing material and is more noticeable in lightweight concrete, self-compacting concrete and expanded polystyrene concrete.

Concrete provides a relatively high level of compressive strength; its tensile strength, however, is fairly low, hence it requires efficient system to resist tensile stresses by incorporating steel as reinforcement, while steel receives certain level of protection against corrosion from the surrounding concrete. Corrosion of reinforcing steel is still a predominant factor undermining the survival of the concrete-based infrastructure. But glass fiber composites offer a particularly desirable balance of corrosion resistant, structural performance and cost. Most importantly, fiber reinforced composites are not prone to the electrochemical processes of corrosion. While cost-competitive glass fiber composite reinforcement systems are living up to expectations in terms of structural performance, and although they are not susceptible to electrochemical corrosion damage, serious doubts have been raised about their long-term durability in the alkaline environment of concrete.

Group Members:

  1. Dr. Syed Iftikhar Ahmad
  2. Engr. SadamHussain


D.   Transportation Engineering group (TE)

  Research Areas:

Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations including roads,railways,airways,waterways,canals and pipelines and terminals. Roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal constructional maintenance. Automobiles provide high flexibility with low capacity, but require high energy and area use, and are the main source of noise and air pollution in cities; buses allow for more efficient travel at the cost of reduced flexibility

Water transport is movement by means of a watercraft such as a barge, boat, ship or sailboat over a body of water. The need for buoyancy is common to watercraft, making the hull a dominant aspect of its construction, maintenance and appearance.

Although slow, modern sea transport is a highly efficient method of transporting large quantities of goods. Commercial vessels, nearly 35,000 in number, carried 7.4 billion tons of cargo in 2007. Transport by water is significantly less costly than air transport for transcontinental shipping, short sea shipping and ferries remain viable in coastal areas.

Group Members:

  1. Dr. Syed Iftikhar Ahmad
  2. Engr. Yousaf Mushtaq
  3. Engr. Hiba Arshad

2. Collaborative research groups

Hydraulic characteristic of Harapan civilization

Research Areas:

 Department of Heritage Studies and Department of Civil Engineering both has initiated to venture on Harappa site on the behalf of its preservation as well as conservation widely aimed at its archaeology. It was inevitable to enhance the understanding and scope of knowledge about archaeological sites as well as cultural material. May be this tour was the first one of the series of countless tours in the near future.

The planned architecture of the cities of mature Harappan people catered the needs of all classes of society a factor which distinguishes it from the contemporary Mesopotamia and Egypt. So far, the development of architecture of citadel and residential areas is concerned there are sites wherein the development from rural to urbanized architecture could be gleaned. Besides religious and burial architecture, hydraulic architecture is another distinctive features of the civilization

The Harappans have given systematic town planning, fortification of citadel, elaborate drainage system the idea of establishing of granaries and surplus economy, standardization of brick sizes, weights and measures, geometric instruments e.g. right angles, linear scale and plumb bob are the principal gifts of the Harappans to the succeeding cultures through the ages. this project focuses on

  • To study the hydraulic characteristics of drainage & water supply systems.
  • To find out the population of Harappa using mentioned calculations.

Group Members:

  1. Dr. Syed Iftikhar Ahmad
  2. Engr. Waqar Ahsan
  3. Engr. Hiba Arshad
  4. Muhammad Azam Sameer
  5. Mr. Ali Imam
  6. Ms. Barrira Ilyas
  7. Ms. Suman


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